Brain’s Response to Two Types of Meditation

Taken from

According to a 2007 survey completed by the United States government, almost 10% of the American population confirmed that they had been engaged in meditation during the past twelve months.

Given such a high volume of practice, scientists have taken an interest in what happens to the brain during meditative states.

Meditation is thought to improve a person’s ability to concentrate, as well as decrease anxiety or stress. The emotional benefits are said to have a positive effect on a person’s overall health and wellness.

Do the two predominant styles of meditation hold up to scientific scrutiny?

While practices may vary in form, researchers have determined that all meditation falls into one of two categories:

Concentrative meditation: Where a person is focusing on something specific, such as repetitive breathing or a specific image or thought. During this type of meditation, the singular focus allows the person to block out all other thoughts or activities, such as surrounding noises or actions.

Non-directive meditation: During this type of meditation, a person simply relaxes and lets the mind roam free. This state often utilizes soft sounds, such as cascading water, to help the person induce a completely relaxed state.

To uncover the science behind each type of meditative practice, scientists used MRI scans to record the brain activity in 14 test subjects. Each participant engaged in a recorded period of regular resting, a recorded period of non-directive meditation and a recorded period of concentrative meditation.

The results, published in the Frontiers of Human Neuroscience Journal, validated the belief that meditation does in fact reduce stress and improve mood.

The results showed that during concentrative meditation, where a person focuses on a single thought or image, the brain activity was very close to the state of resting. So, concentrative meditation can be considered a form of wakeful rest for your mind.

Findings with Non-Directive Meditation

During non-directive meditation, where the mind is allowed to wander freely, the brain activity was actually higher in areas associated with processing thoughts and emotions than when in a state of rest.

According to principals in the study, these findings suggest that nondirective meditation “allows for more room to process memories and emotions than during concentrated mediation. Researchers also remarked:

This area of the brain has its highest activity when we rest. It represents a kind of basic operating system, a resting network that takes over when external tasks do not require our attention. It is remarkable that a mental task like nondirective meditation results in even higher activity in this network than regular rest.


Which Meditation is Correct?

Is there activity in meditation? In this video Dada interprets Patanjali’s definition of Yoga “Citta vrittih nirodhah” in a more logical and practical way than is commonly understood. It aligns with the real world which requires that action be done in order for success to be achieved. In the same way, meditation is an action albeit subtle which ultimately ends in the state of “actionlessness” or infinite peace.

Signs of Progress in Meditation

Taken from Bodhipaksa (2007)

An obsession with getting someplace in meditation can be very unhelpful. But you’re new to meditation you often need some gentle reassurance that you’re on the right path. Often it’s hard to tell whether you are making progress or not. I note elsewhere that one of the things that will help you to stick with your meditation practice is the ability to notice and appreciate small changes. So here are some of the small changes that you might want to watch out for.

  • Other people noticing that you are changing. Sometimes it’s hard to have a sense of perspective on ourselves. We can easily concentrate on supposed failures to the extent that we completely miss positive changes. Often, my meditation students report that other people notice that they are changing; becoming more relaxed, less reactive, and more friendly.
  • Starting to develop more concentration. You can use the counting to give you a sense of whether you are developing more concentration. Being able to count to ten even once may be a step forward. If you make it to there, then you might want to aim to count to ten three times in a row. You might notice that you have the ability to count continuously and also have a lot of thoughts arising. That’s great! Pay more attention to the fact that you have developed more continuity of awareness than you do to the fact that there are still a lot of stray thoughts.
  • Having interesting experiences in meditation. You may begin to notice unusual things – like a delightful sense of rhythm in your breathing, or the way in which your body subtly moves in response to your heartbeat. These are signs that you are developing more concentration and awareness in meditation, and you would be wise to pay attention to such experiences. Some of the things you might experience might seem a little odd. A common example is seeing patterns of moving lights. This is a good sign, in that you are moving into a deeper state of concentration. But it’s best not to pay much attention to those lights or they will turn into a distraction and slow your progress.
  • Spontaneous resolution of posture problems. Sometimes you’ll notice parts of your body relaxing spontaneously. Sometimes a particular problem you had with your posture might suddenly disappear.
  • Paying more attention to the outside world. It’s a very good sign when you start to slow down and notice the beauty in the world.
  • Noticing your posture more. You may become more aware of your body during the course of the day, and you may notice how awareness of your body grounds you. You may even come to a deeper understanding of how your posture influences your emotions and mind.
  • Noticing you have choices. You may start to notice the gap between stimulus and response, and realize that you have a choice about how to respond. You can choose not to respond habitually, but instead to choose a more appropriate and creative response.
  • Becoming more aware of your actions. Often, before we get to the stage of being aware of our actions before we do them, we start to notice them after we’ve done them. It’s tempting to feel frustration to realize that you’ve lost your temper once again, but actually it’s a good sign that you’re noticing this at all. With practice you’ll be able to catch those responses earlier and earlier, until you’re able to choose to respond more creatively.
  • Feelings of calmness. You may have spells of greater than usual calmness in your meditation or after meditation. You may even experience some reluctance to end a period of meditation.
  • Interesting and vivid dreams. When your meditation begins to “bite”, it often leads to more vivid and meaningful dreams. Pay attention to these and see what you can learn from them.
  • Becoming more dissatisfied. Paradoxically, one side-effect of becoming more self-aware is that you realize that there are things about yourself that you’d like to change. This realization is uncomfortable but also useful. If you don’t become aware of things in your behavior that you want to change you’ll never do anything about them.
  • Time passing quickly. When you’re really enjoying something, time passes more quickly. It’s common to notice that time passes faster in certain meditations.

One of the main signs of progress in meditation, though, is being more relaxed about making progress. Our meditation practice never changes in a constant, linear way. There are always ups and downs. One day you’re sitting there and you unexpectedly find that you’re blissfully happy and almost totally without distraction. The next day your mind is all over the place. This is normal, and it’s good to relax, and not be obsessed about “getting somewhere.” Yes, it’s good to have the aspiration to move in the direction of greater calm and happiness, but the expectation that this is going to happen will bring us nothing but pain. Bearing in mind the aspiration to move in the direction of greater calm and happiness, we simply work with whatever arises, not worrying about whether it’s a “good” meditation or a “bad” meditation.

Also, not all changes are noticeable in the short term. It’s now known that when you meditate, you rewire your brain in helpful ways. Can you tell whether or not new neurons have been generated, or whether new connections between neurons have been built? Of course not. But it’s happening anyway. It might take months for those changes to manifest in anything perceptible. So in the meantime, just relax and get on with the practice.